EDCTP Alumni Network

Fostering excellence and collaboration in the next generation of researchers

Call Career Development Fellowship (CDF)
Programme EDCTP2
Start Date 2021-06-01
End Date 2023-12-01
Project Code TMA2019CDF-2776
Status Active

Title

Characterisation of cardiac disease in adolescents with perinatally-acquired HIV infection in the antiretroviral therapy era (CORD)

Host Organisation

Institution Country
Biomedical Research and Training Institute (BRTI) Zimbabwe
Call EDCTP-AREF Preparatory Fellowships (PF)
Programme EDCTP2
Start Date 2020-09-01
End Date 2021-05-31
Project Code TMA2018PF-2533
Status Active

Title

Cardiovascular disease in adolescents with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa (CVDA)

Host Organisation

Institution Country
Biomedical Research and Training Institute (BRTI) Zimbabwe

Current Organisation

Biomedical Research and Training Institute (BRTI)

Current Job Title

Research Fellow

Students Supervised

Type Name Title University Start Date End Date
BSc. Hons in Radiography Memory Sibanda ANTERO-POSTERIOR LUMBAR X-RAYS: IMPACT OF STRETCHER BEDS ON IMAGE QUALITY AND RADIATION DOSE University of Zimbabwe 2020 2021
BSc. Hons in Radiography Edith Mazhinye EMOTIONAL WELLBEING, STRESS AND COPING STRATEGIES AMONG RADIOGRAPHY STUDENTS IN HARARE University of Zimbabwe 2020 2021
Masters of Public Health Lazarus Tombo Barriers to provision of Optimal Radiology Services in Zimbabwe Univeristy of Burmingham, UK 2018 2019
BSc. Hons in Radiography Sasha Matau RADIATION PROTECTION AUDIT OF LEAD-RUBBER APRONS USED IN THE OPERATING THEATRES AT CENTRAL HOSPITALS IN HARARE. University of Zimbabwe 2019 2020
Kudzai Mukabeta A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PRONE AND SUPINE X-RAY PROJECTIONS IN EVALUATION OF ABDOMEN. University of Zimbabwe 2019 2020

Publications

Authors:
Date:
2016-11-01
Journal:
AIDS (London, England)
Content:
Respiratory disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), children suffer chronic symptoms. We investigated symptom prevalence, lung function and exercise capacity among older children established on ART and an age-matched HIV-uninfected group.A cross-sectional study in Zimbabwe of HIV-infected children aged 6-16 years receiving ART for over 6 months and HIV-uninfected children attending primary health clinics from the same area.Standardized questionnaire, spirometry, incremental shuttle walk testing, CD4 cell count, HIV viral load and sputum culture for tuberculosis were performed.A total of 202 HIV-infected and 150 uninfected participants (median age 11.1 years in each group) were recruited. Median age at HIV diagnosis and ART initiation was 5.5 (interquartile range 2.8-7.5) and 6.1 (interquartile range 3.6-8.4) years, respectively. Median CD4 cell count was 726 cells/μl, and 79% had HIV viral load less than 400 copies/ml. Chronic respiratory symptoms were rare in HIV-uninfected children [n = 1 (0.7%)], but common in HIV-infected participants [51 (25%)], especially cough [30 (15%)] and dyspnoea [30 (15%)]. HIV-infected participants were more commonly previously treated for tuberculosis [76 (38%) vs 1 (0.7%), P < 0.001], had lower exercise capacity (mean incremental shuttle walk testing distance 771 vs 889 m, respectively, P < 0.001) and more frequently abnormal spirometry [43 (24.3%) vs 15 (11.5%), P = 0.003] compared with HIV-uninfected participants. HIV diagnosis at an older age was associated with lung function abnormality (P = 0.025). No participant tested positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.In children, despite ART, HIV is associated with significant respiratory symptoms and functional impairment. Understanding pathogenesis is key, as new treatment strategies are urgently required.
Identifiers:
Authors:
Date:
2018-04-04
Journal:
Pediatric cardiology
Content:
Echocardiography plays a critical role in the assessment of cardiac disease. Important differences in echocardiographically derived cardiac chamber dimensions have been previously highlighted in different population groups in adult studies, but this has not been systematically studied in children, whose body size changes throughout childhood. The aim of this study was to review the distribution of available reference ranges for the left cardiac chamber dimensions in older children and adolescents. The following electronic data bases were searched: Medline, Embase and Web of Science were searched to identify studies which have established echocardiographic reference ranges of left heart parameters in children and adolescents from 1975 to December 2017. There was no geographical limitation. All results were imported into Endnote. Retrieved articles were screened and data extracted by two independent reviewers. A total of 4398 studies were retrieved, with 36 studies finally included in this review. 29 (81%) references were from North America and European (Caucasians) populations, with only one study each from Africa and South America. Two-dimensional and M-mode techniques were the most commonly used echocardiography techniques. There were methodological variations in techniques and normalisation of references. Comparison of selected cardiac measures showed significant differences for interventricular septal thickness among Black African, Indian, German and US American children. Available echocardiographic references cannot be generalised to all settings and therefore, there is need for locally relevant reference ranges. Africa and South America are particularly under-represented. Future studies should focus on developing comprehensive echocardiographic reference ranges for children from different racial backgrounds and should use standardised techniques.
Identifiers:
Authors:
Date:
2017-12-26
Journal:
Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH
Content:
OBJECTIVE:Increasing numbers of children with HIV are surviving to adolescence and encountering multiple clinical and social consequences of long-standing HIV infection. We aimed to investigate the association between HIV and disability, social functioning and school inclusion among 6- to 16-year-olds in Zimbabwe. METHODS:HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy from a public-sector HIV clinic and HIV-uninfected children attending primary care clinics in the same catchment area were recruited. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic, social functioning and disability data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between HIV status and disability and functioning. RESULTS:We recruited 202 HIV-infected and 285 HIV-uninfected children. There was no difference in age and gender between the two groups, but a higher proportion of HIV-infected children were orphaned. The prevalence of any disability was higher in HIV-infected than uninfected children (37.6% vs. 18.5%, P < 0.001). HIV-infected children were more likely to report anxiety (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.4; 95% CI 2.4, 8.1), low mood (aOR 4.2; 2.1, 8.4) and difficulty forming friendships (aOR 14.8; 1.9, 116.6) than uninfected children. Children with HIV also reported more missed school days, repeating a school year and social exclusion in class. These associations remained apparent when comparing children with HIV and disability to those with HIV but no disabilities. CONCLUSIONS:Children with HIV commonly experience disabilities, and this is associated with social and educational exclusion. Rehabilitation and support services are needed to facilitate educational attainment and social participation in this group.
Identifiers:
Authors:
Date:
2019-09-01
Journal:
AIDS (London, England)
Content:
OBJECTIVE:HIV disrupts host defense mechanisms and maintains chronic inflammation in the lung. Nitric oxide is a marker of lung inflammation and can be measured in the exhaled air. We investigated the relationship between exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), HIV status and airway abnormalities in perinatally HIV-infected children aged 6-19 years. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study. METHODS:HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy and HIV-uninfected children with no active tuberculosis (TB) or acute respiratory tract infection were recruited from a public hospital in Harare, Zimbabwe. Clinical history was collected and eNO testing and spirometry was performed. The association between eNO and explanatory variables (HIV, FEV1 z-score, CD4 cell count, viral load, history of TB) was investigated using linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and time of eNO testing. RESULTS:In total, 222 HIV-infected and 97 HIV-uninfected participants were included. Among HIV-infected participants, 57 (25.7%) had a history of past TB; 56 (25.2%) had airway obstruction, but no prior TB. HIV status was associated with lower eNO level [mean ratio 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.65-0.97), P = 0.03]. Within the HIV-infected group, history of past TB was associated with lower eNO levels after controlling for age, sex and time of eNO testing [0.79 (95% CI 0.67-0.94), P = 0.007]. CONCLUSION:HIV infection and history of TB were associated with lower eNO levels. eNO levels may be a marker of HIV and TB-induced alteration in pulmonary physiology; further studies focused on potential causes for lower eNO levels in HIV and TB are warranted.
Identifiers:
Authors:
Date:
2019-05-10
Journal:
Bone
Content:
BACKGROUND:Perinatally-acquired HIV infection commonly causes stunting in children; how this affects bone and muscle development is unclear. We investigated differences in bone and muscle mass and muscle function between children with HIV (CWH) and uninfected children. SETTING:Cross-sectional study of CWH (6-16 years) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for >6 months and similar aged children testing HIV-negative at primary health clinics in Zimbabwe. METHODS:From Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) we calculated total-body less-head (TBLH) Bone Mineral Content (BMC) for lean mass adjusted-for-height (TBLH-BMCLBM) Z-scores, and lumbar spine (LS) Bone Mineral Apparent Density (BMAD) Z-scores. RESULTS:The 97 CWH were older (mean age 12.7 vs. 10.0 years) and taller (mean height 142 cm vs. 134 cm) than 77 uninfected. However, stunting (height-for-age Z-score ≤ -2) was more prevalent in CWH (35% vs. 5%, p < 0.001). Among CWH, 15% had low LS-BMAD (Z-score ≤ -2) and 13% low TBLH-BMCLBM, vs. 1% and 3% respectively in those uninfected (both p ≤ 0.02). After age, sex, height and puberty adjustment, LS-BMAD was 0.33 SDs (95%CI -0.01, 0.67; p = 0.06) lower in CWH, with no differences by HIV status in TBLH-BMCLBM, lean mass (0.11 [-0.03, 0.24], p = 0.11) or grip strength (0.05 [-0.16, 0.27], p = 0.62). However, age at ART initiation was correlated with both LS-BMAD Z-score (r = -0.33, p = 0.001) and TBLH-BMCLBM Z-score (r = -0.23, p = 0.027); for each year ART initiation was delayed a 0.13 SD reduction in LS-BMAD was seen. CONCLUSION:Size-adjusted low bone density is common in CWH. Delay in initiating ART adversely affects bone density. Findings support immediate ART initiation at HIV diagnosis.
Identifiers:
Authors:
Date:
2022-05-25
Journal:
Atherosclerosis, Volume 352, 53 - 61
Content:

Background and aims

Perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) and prolonged use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may increase the likelihood of developing subclinical vascular dysfunction at an early age. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effect of PHIV and ART on intima-media thickness (IMT), arterial stiffness and endothelial function in individuals aged 6–25 years.

Methods

Medline, Embase and Web of Science were searched, and studies screened by two independent reviewers. We performed a meta-analysis on selected studies reporting on IMT.

Results

A total of 680 studies were retrieved from the databases, with 21 studies deemed eligible for qualitative analysis. There were few studies assessing IMT, arterial stiffness and endothelial function. More than half of the studies found either increased IMT, stiffer arteries or impaired endothelial function in PHIV compared to uninfected controls. A minority of the studies reported that the two groups had similar vascular parameters, a conflicting finding. There was a lack of standardisation for IMT assessment and reporting in numerous studies. In a meta-analysis of seven studies with matching methodologies, IMT was higher in PHIV compared to uninfected controls, (mean difference, 0.05 (0.01–0.09; p = 0.01) but heterogeneity between the studies was substantial (I2, 96.7%; p < 0.001).

Conclusions

PHIV may affect vascular structure and function. Existing studies are generally small, often contradictory, and predominantly cross-sectional in design. Further studies are required to understand vascular health in PHIV to identify cardiovascular disease risk and improve interventional strategies aimed at prevention and treatment of early vascular changes in this population.

Identifiers:
Not Informed: not informed
Authors:
Date:
2017-08-01
Journal:
Journal of the International AIDS Society
Content:
INTRODUCTION:Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for HIV infection have high sensitivity and specificity, but in the setting of longstanding antiretroviral therapy (ART), can give false results that can lead to misinterpretation, confusion and inadequate management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the proportion of falsely negative results of a RDT performed on oral fluid in HIV-infected children on longstanding ART. METHODS:One hundred and twenty-nine children with known HIV infection and receiving ART were recruited from the HIV Clinic at the Harare Central Hospital, Zimbabwe. HIV testing was performed on oral fluid and on finger-stick blood. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:Children included in the study had a median age of 12 years (IQR 10-14) and 67 (51.9%) were female. Median age at HIV diagnosis was 5 years (IQR 3-6) and the median time on ART was 6.3 years (IQR 4.3-8.1). The oral fluid test was negative in 11 (8.5%) patients and indeterminate in 2 (1.6%). Finger-stick blood test was negative in 1 patient. Patients with a negative oral fluid test had a higher CD4 cell count (967 vs. 723 cells/mm3, p = 0.016) and a longer time on ART (8.5 vs. 6 years, p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS:This study found that a substantial proportion of false-negative HIV test results in children on longstanding ART when using an oral fluid test. This could lead to misinterpretation of HIV test results and in the false perception of cure or delayed diagnosis.
Identifiers:
Authors:
Date:
2017-06-30
Journal:
International journal of cardiology
Content:
Echocardiographic reference ranges are important to identify abnormalities of cardiac dimensions. Reference ranges for children in sub-Saharan Africa have not been established. The aim of this study was to establish echocardiographic z-score references for Black children in sub-Saharan Africa.282 healthy subjects aged 6-16years (143 [51%] males) with no known history of cardiac disease were enrolled in the study in Harare, Zimbabwe between 2014 and 2016. Standard M-mode echocardiography was performed and nine cardiac chamber dimensions were obtained. Two non-linear statistical models (gamma weighted model and cubic polynomial model) were tested on the data and the best fitting model was used to calculate z-scores of these cardiac chamber measures. The reference ranges are presented on scatter plots against BSA.Normative data for the following cardiac measures were obtained and z-scores calculated: right ventricular diameter at end diastole (RVEDD); left ventricular diameter at end diastole (LVEDD) and systole (LVESD); interventricular septal wall thickness at end diastole (IVSd) and systole (IVSs); left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end diastole (LVPWd) and systole (LVPWs); left atrium diameter at end systole (LA) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). Girls had higher values for BMI and heart rate than boys (p=0.048 and p=0.001, respectively). Mean interventricular septal and left ventricular posterior walls thickness was higher than published normal values in predominantly Caucasian populations.These are the first echocardiographic reference ranges for children from sub Saharan Africa and will allow accurate assessment of cardiac dimensions in clinical practice.
Identifiers:
Authors:
Date:
2019-03-04
Journal:
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Content:
BACKGROUND:Older children and adolescents with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (PHIV) infection in Africa experience multiple comorbidities that are not typical of HIV-associated opportunistic infections, including growth impairment and chronic lung disease. We examined associations between plasma cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA and lung function and growth. METHODS:Plasma CMV DNA loads were measured children aged 6-16 years with PHIV (n = 402) and HIV-uninfected controls (n = 224). The HIV-infected children were either newly diagnosed or known HIV infected and stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for >6 months. CMV DNA loads were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. CMV DNAemia was modeled as a time-varying outcome using longitudinal mixed-effects logistic regression. RESULTS:At enrollment, CMV DNAemia ≥1000 copies/mL (defined as "clinically significant") was detected in 5.8% of uninfected children, 14.7% of HIV-infected participants stable on ART, and 22.6% of HIV-infected ART-naive children (χ2 = 23.8, P < .001). The prevalence of CMV DNAemia ≥1000 copies/mL was associated with CD4 counts <350 cells/µL. Among HIV-infected ART-naive children, the presence of CMV DNAemia of ≥1000 copies/mL was independently associated with reduced lung function (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-8.46; P = .017). Among ART-treated children, stunting was associated with CMV DNAemia of ≥1000 copies/mL (aOR = 2.79; 95% CI, 0.97-8.02; P = .057). CONCLUSIONS:Clinically significant levels of CMV DNAemia were common in older children with PHIV, even those on ART, suggesting a role for inadequately controlled CMV infection in the pathogenesis of PHIV comorbidities in Africa.
Identifiers:
Authors:
Date:
2019-05-04
Journal:
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Content:
BACKGROUND:A high prevalence of cardiac abnormalities has been reported in children with HIV taking ART in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the incidence and progression of cardiac abnormalities among children taking ART in Zimbabwe. METHODS:A prospective cohort study was conducted at a paediatric HIV clinic from 2014 to 2017. Children with HIV aged between 6 and 16 years and taking ART ≥6 months were enrolled. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed at baseline and 18 months. RESULTS:Of 197 participants recruited at baseline, 175 [(89%), 48% female, median age 12 (IQR, 10-14) years] were followed up. The incidence of left and right heart abnormalities was 3.52 and 5.64 per 100 pys, respectively. Stunting was associated with the development of any cardiac abnormality [adjusted OR 2.59 (95% CI, 1.03-6.49); p=0.043]. Right ventricular (RV) dilatation persisted at follow up in 92% and left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in 88%. Cardiac abnormalities present at baseline reverted to normal over the follow up period in 11(6%). There was an overall increase in mean z-scores for LV, left atrium (LA), RV, interventricular septum and LV posterior wall diameters at 18 months (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Despite ART, children with HIV have a high incidence of cardiac abnormalities, with only a minority being transient. Mean z-scores for LV, LA, RV, interventricular septum and LV posterior wall diameters increased over a relatively short follow up period, suggesting the potential for progression of cardiac abnormalities. Longer follow up is required to understand the clinical implications of these abnormalities.
Identifiers:
Authors:
Date:
2017-12-28
Journal:
Trials
Content:
BACKGROUND:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related chronic lung disease (CLD) among children is associated with substantial morbidity, despite antiretroviral therapy. This may be a consequence of repeated respiratory tract infections and/or dysregulated immune activation that accompanies HIV infection. Macrolides have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, and we hypothesised that azithromycin would reduce decline in lung function and morbidity through preventing respiratory tract infections and controlling systemic inflammation. METHODS/DESIGN:We are conducting a multicentre (Malawi and Zimbabwe), double-blind, randomised controlled trial of a 12-month course of weekly azithromycin versus placebo. The primary outcome is the mean change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) z-score at 12 months. Participants are followed up to 18 months to explore the durability of effect. Secondary outcomes are FEV1 z-score at 18 months, time to death, time to first acute respiratory exacerbation, number of exacerbations, number of hospitalisations, weight for age z-score at 12 and 18 months, number of adverse events, number of malaria episodes, number of bloodstream Salmonella typhi infections and number of gastroenteritis episodes. Participants will be followed up 3-monthly, and lung function will be assessed every 6 months. Laboratory substudies will be done to investigate the impact of azithromycin on systemic inflammation and on development of antimicrobial resistance as well as impact on the nasopharyngeal, lung and gut microbiome. DISCUSSION:The results of this trial will be of clinical relevance because there are no established guidelines on the treatment and management of HIV-associated CLD in children in sub-Saharan Africa, where 80% of the world's HIV-infected children live and where HIV-associated CLD is highly prevalent. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02426112 . Registered on 21 April 2015.
Identifiers:
Authors:
Date:
2019-03-21
Journal:
PloS one
Content:
INTRODUCTION:Chronic respiratory disease is a common cause of morbidity in children with HIV infection. We investigated longitudinal lung function trends among HIV-infected children, to describe the evolution of lung disease and assess the effect of anti-retroviral therapy (ART). METHODS:Prospective follow-up of two cohorts of HIV-infected children, aged 6 to 16 years, in Harare, Zimbabwe; one group were ART-naïve at enrolment, the other established on ART for a median of 4.7-years. Standardised spirometric assessments were repeated over a 2-year follow-up period. Forced expiratory volume (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were expressed as Global Lung Initiative defined z-scores (FEV1z and FVCz). Linear mixed-effects regression modelling of lung function was performed, with co-variate parameters evaluated by likelihood ratio comparison. RESULTS:We included 271 ART-naïve and 197 ART-established children (median age 11 years in both groups) incorporating 1144 spirometric assessments. Changes in FEV1 and FVC were associated with age at ART initiation and body mass index for both cohorts. Our models estimate that ART initiation earlier in life could prevent a deterioration of 0.04 FVCz/year. In the ART-naïve cohort, likelihood ratio comparison suggested an improvement in 0.09 FVCz/year during the two years following treatment initiation, but no evidence for this among participants established on ART. CONCLUSION:Early ART initiation and improved nutrition are positively associated with lung function and are important modifiable factors. An initial improvement in lung growth was seen in the first 2-years following ART initiation, although this did not appear to be sustained beyond this timeframe.
Identifiers:
Authors:
Date:
2018-11-01
Journal:
AIDS (London, England)
Content:
BACKGROUND:Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased mortality so that increasing numbers of children with HIV are reaching adolescence. However, longstanding HIV infection and/or its treatment in children is associated with noninfectious complications including cardiac disease. We investigated the prevalence, spectrum and risk factors for echocardiographic abnormalities among children established on ART. METHODS:HIV-infected children aged 6-16 years, on ART at least 6 months were enrolled into a cross-sectional study from a public-sector paediatric HIV clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. A standardized examination including transthoracic echocardiography was performed. Local echocardiographic reference ranges were used to define cardiac abnormalities. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between cardiac abnormalities and risk factors. RESULTS:Of the 201participants recruited, 92 (46%) were girls and median age was 11 (IQR 9-12) years; CD4+ cell count was 727 cells/μl (IQR 473-935) and 154 (78%) had viral load less than 400 copies/ml. Echocardiographic abnormalities were found in 83 (42%); left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction was the most common abnormality 45 (23%) and LV hypertrophy in 22 (11%). LV and left atrial dilatation were found in 9 (5%) and 16 (8%), respectively. Right ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction were found in 13 (7%) and 4 (2%), respectively, of whom 60% had concurrent left heart abnormalities. Current use of nevirapine was associated with LVH [aOR 3.14 (1.13-8.72; P = 0.03)] and hypertension was associated with LV diastolic dysfunction [aOR 3.12 (1.48-6.57; P < 0.01)]. CONCLUSION:HIV-infected children established on ART have a high burden of echocardiographic abnormalities. Right heart disease was predominantly associated with left heart abnormalities and may be part of a global cardiomyopathic process. Further studies are needed to investigate the natural history, aetiology, and pathogenesis of these abnormalities, so that appropriate monitoring and treatment strategies can be developed.
Identifiers:
Authors:
Scott T Chiesa
Date:
2022-05-26
Journal:
Atherosclerosis .
Content:

Background and aims: Perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) and prolonged use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may increase the likelihood of developing subclinical vascular dysfunction at an early age. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effect of PHIV and ART on intima-media thickness (IMT), arterial stiffness and endothelial function in individuals aged 6-25 years.

Methods: Medline, Embase and Web of Science were searched, and studies screened by two independent reviewers. We performed a meta-analysis on selected studies reporting on IMT.

Results: A total of 680 studies were retrieved from the databases, with 21 studies deemed eligible for qualitative analysis. There were few studies assessing IMT, arterial stiffness and endothelial function. More than half of the studies found either increased IMT, stiffer arteries or impaired endothelial function in PHIV compared to uninfected controls. A minority of the studies reported that the two groups had similar vascular parameters, a conflicting finding. There was a lack of standardisation for IMT assessment and reporting in numerous studies. In a meta-analysis of seven studies with matching methodologies, IMT was higher in PHIV compared to uninfected controls, (mean difference, 0.05 (0.01-0.09; p = 0.01) but heterogeneity between the studies was substantial (I2, 96.7%; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: PHIV may affect vascular structure and function. Existing studies are generally small, often contradictory, and predominantly cross-sectional in design. Further studies are required to understand vascular health in PHIV to identify cardiovascular disease risk and improve interventional strategies aimed at prevention and treatment of early vascular changes in this population.

Identifiers:
Not Informed: not informed
Authors:
Date:
2018-01-01
Journal:
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Content:
Background:Chronic respiratory symptoms are common among children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We investigated the radiological features of chronic lung disease in children aged 6-16 years receiving antiretroviral therapy for ≥6 months in Harare, Zimbabwe. Methods:Consecutive participants from a HIV clinic underwent clinical assessment and chest radiography. Participants with an abnormal chest radiograph (assessed by a clinician) and/or those meeting a clinical case definition for chronic lung disease underwent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Radiological studies were scored independently and blindly by 2 thoracic radiologists. Relationships between radiological abnormalities and lung function were examined. Results:Among 193 participants (46% female; median age, 11.2 years; interquartile range, 9.0-12.8 years), the median CD4 cell count was 720/µL (473-947/µL), and 79% had a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load of <400 copies/mL. The most common chest radiographic finding was ring/tramline opacities (55 of 193 participants; 29%). HRCT scans were evaluated in 84 participants (69%); decreased attenuation (present in 43%) was the dominant abnormality seen. The extent of decreased attenuation was strongly correlated with both the severity and extent of bronchiectasis (rs = 0.68 and P < .001 for both). The extent of decreased attenuation was also negatively correlated with forced expiratory volume in first second of expiration (rs = -0.52), forced vital capacity (rs = -0.42), and forced expiratory flow, midexpiratory phase (rs = -0.42) (P < .001 for all). Conclusions:The HRCT findings strongly suggest that obliterative bronchiolitis may be the major cause of chronic lung disease in our cohort. Further studies to understand the pathogenesis and natural history are urgently needed.
Identifiers:

Projects

Fellow:
Edith Majonga
Collaborators:
Name Country Institution
Edith Majonga Zimbabwe Biomedical Research & Training Institute
Objectives:
1. To describe cardiac structure and function (fibrosis, signs of inflammation, contractile dysfunction,) in adolescents with perinatal HIV using CMR 2. To investigate CMV DNAemia and biomarkers (cardiac, inflammation and fibrosis) in adolescents with perinatal HIV 3. To determine association of biomarkers and myocardial abnormalities 4. To explore the association of CMV DNAemia and myocardial abnormalities
Sites:
Sally Mugabe Central Hospital, Harare Zimbabwe
Study Design:
Cross-sectional
Subjects:
Adolescents with perinatal HIV
Outcomes:
1. Myocardial abnormalities in adolescents with perinatal HIV; Presence and extent of LGE, n (%); Extracellular volume for diffuse fibrosis estimation; Myocardial oedema; LV Mass and LV mass index 2. CMV DNA load and Levels of biomarkers Cardiac markers (GDF-15, cardiac troponins, NT-proBNP) Inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha, soluble CD14) Fibrosis markers (galectin-3, soluble ST2, TIMP-1) 3. Association between biomarkers, CMV DNA load and myocardial abnormalities. -
Start Date:
2021-06-01
End Date:
2023-12-31

Send a Message