EDCTP Alumni Network

Fostering excellence and collaboration in the next generation of researchers

Call Career Development Fellowship (CDF)
Programme EDCTP2
Start Date 2018-07-01
End Date 2021-06-30
Project Code TMA2016CDF1550
Status Active

Title

Immunogenicity to cholera vaccine within a population at risk in Zambia: mapping the kinetics of immune responses over time

Objectives

• Determine cholera specific antibody titers at baseline (prior vaccination) • Determine seroconversion after 1st and 2nd doses • Asses benefits of a 2nd dose of OCV given after 4 weeks following the 1st dose • Determine if vaccine immune responses wane off at 6, 12, 24, 36, 42 or 48 months post second dose OVC

Host Organisation

Institution Country
Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia (CIDRZ) Zambia

Participants

Name Institution Country
Caroline Cleopatra Chisenga Centre for Infectious Dise Zambia
Harriet Ngombe Centre for Infectious Dise Zambia

Study Design

This is a pre/post-vaccine study involving a cohort of individuals receiving an oral cholera vaccine provided by the ministry of health (MoH) in response to a cholera outbreak in the Lukanga Swamps. Volunteering eligible individuals were, consented, enrolled and the questionnaire administered.

Sites

Lukanga Swamps-Central Province of Zambia

Phd Study

Title University Start Date End Date
Mr John Mwaba University of Zambia 2018-08-01 2021-12-31

Students Supervised

Type Name Title University Start Date End Date
MSc Student Harriet Ngombe Ms University of Zambia 2019 2021

Results & Outcomes

In progress

Current Organisation

Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia

Current Job Title

Research Fellow

Students Supervised

Type Name Title University Start Date End Date
MSc Student Harriet Ngombe Ms University of Zambia 2019 2021
MSc Tracy Naomi Phiri Ms University of Zambia 2019 2021
MSc Student Nawa Mukena Mr University of Zambia 2019 2021

Education

Institution Degree Year
University of Ulster, Ireland Graduate Certificate in Biomedical Sciences 2007
University of Ulster, Ireland Masters in Biomedical Sciences 2009
University of Zambia, Zambia PhD in HIV immunology 2015

Areas Of Specialisation

Diarrhoeal Diseases (DDs)

Publications

Authors:
Luchen CC , Luchen et al., 2021
Date:
2021-12-02
Journal:
Plosone
Content:

Background

We set out to assess the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and micronutrient deficiency as indicated by serum retinol levels on the immune responses to Oral Cholera Vaccine (Shanchol™) in a cohort of participants in Lukanga Swamps, Zambia. Cholera remains endemic in Zambia with vaccines being the only effective preventive measures. However, the effect of these vaccines on populations living with HIV has not been widely documented.

 

Methods

HIV testing and confirmation was done using the Alere Determine™ HIV-1/2 and Uni-Gold™ kits while vibriocidal antibody assay was applied for vaccine immunogenicity. Serum retinol analysis was assessed by Shimadzu Prominence HCT-2010 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The primary outcome was log transformed geometric mean titre.

 

Results

From 47 participants screened for HIV, 51% (24) tested positive. There was a statistically significant reduction in Ogawa geometric mean ratio (GMR) by 67% (GMR = 0.33; 95% CI: -0.15, 0.76; p-value = 0.009) attributable to HIV positivity with a non-significant reduction in Inaba GMR by about 50% due to HIV positivity. When doubling of retinol levels modelled, GMR reduction against Ogawa were non-significant but that against Inaba resulted in a significant reduction in geometric mean titer (GMT) (GMT-0.33, C.I 0.16–0.66, p-value 0.002). At 1000copies/ml viral load cut off and 350 cells/μl CD4 counts, Ogawa GMT was two times higher 11.16 (95%CI: 8.20–15.19) versus 6.06 (95%CI: 4.04–9.10) in low viremia participants, and three times higher in above threshold CD4 count participants; 24.81 (95%CI: 18.94–32.50) versus 7.07 (95%CI: 5.22–9.58).

 

Conclusion

Our results show that while Shanchol™ is immunogenic in both HIV+/- individuals, HIV + participants responded poorly. Viral load and CD4 count affected vaccine immunogenicity. More research is required for detailed understanding of this in order to appropriately inform policy and practice.

Identifiers:
Not Informed: not informed
Authors:
Natasha Makabilo Laban , author
Samuel Bosomprah , author
Kalo Musukuma-Chifulo , author
Michelo Simuyandi , author
Shilpa Iyer , author
Harriet Ng'ombe , author
Mutinta Muchimba , author
Adriace Chauwa , author
Sekayi Tigere , author
Caroline Cleopatra Chisenga , author
Mwelwa Chibuye , author
Obvious Nchimunya Chilyabanyama , author
Martin Goodier , author
Roma Chilengi , author
Date:
2021-05-06
Journal:
Content:
Identifiers:
Authors:
Harriet Ngombe , Ngombe et al., 2022
Date:
2022-01-05
Journal:
Plosone
Content:

Introduction

In cholera endemic areas, the periodicity of cholera outbreaks remains unpredictable, making it difficult to organize preventive efforts. Lack of data on duration of protection conferred by oral cholera vaccines further makes it difficult to determine when to deploy preemptive vaccination. We report on the immunogenicity and waning of immunity to Shanchol™ in Lukanga Swamps.

 

Methods

We enrolled a cohort of 223 participants aged between 18 and 65 years old from whom serum samples were collected at baseline, day 28 before administration of the second dose, and consecutively at 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, and 48 months. Vibriocidal antibody titres were measured and expressed as geometric mean titres. Box plots and 95% CI were computed at each visit for both Inaba and Ogawa. Seroconversion was defined as a four fold or greater increase in antibody titres compared to baseline titres.

 

Results

Overall, seroconversion against V. cholerae Inaba and Ogawa after 1st dose was 35/134 (26%) and 34/134 (25%) respectively. We observed a statistical difference in seroconversion between the two subgroups of baseline titres (low <80 and high ≥80) for both Inaba (p = 0.02) and Ogawa (p<0.0001). From a baseline of 13.58, anti-Ogawa GMT increased to 21.95 after the first dose, but rapidly waned to 14.52, 13.13, and 12.78 at months 6, 12 and 24 respectively, and then increased to 13.21, 18.67 and 23.65 at months 30, 36 and 48 respectively. A similar trend was observed for anti-Inaba GMT across the same time points.

 

Conclusion

We found that Shanchol™ was immunogenic in our study population and that vibriocidal antibodies may not be a good marker for long-term immunity. The observed rise in titres after 36 months suggests natural exposure, and this may be a critical time window opening for natural transmission in an endemic areas. We recommend re-vaccination at this time point in high risk areas.

Identifiers:
Not Informed: not informed
Authors:
Caroline C. Chisenga , author
Ray Borrow , editor
Samuel Bosomprah , author
Michelo Simuyandi , author
Katayi Mwila-Kazimbaya , author
Obvious N. Chilyabanyama , author
Natasha M. Laban , author
Anya Bialik , author
Valeria Asato , author
Shiri Meron-Sudai , author
Gad Frankel , author
Daniel Cohen , author
Roma Chilengi , author
Date:
2021-05-27
Journal:
PLOS ONE
Content:
Identifiers:
Authors:
Caroline C. Chisenga , author
Abdallah M. Samy , editor
Samuel Bosomprah , author
Kalo Musukuma , author
Cynthia Mubanga , author
Obvious N. Chilyabanyama , author
Rachel M. Velu , author
Young Chan Kim , author
Arturo Reyes-Sandoval , author
Roma Chilengi , author
Date:
2020-07-01
Journal:
PLOS ONE
Content:
Identifiers:

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