EDCTP Alumni Network

Fostering excellence and collaboration in the next generation of researchers

Call EDCTP-AREF Preparatory Fellowships (PF)
Programme EDCTP2
Start Date 2021-03-01
End Date 2023-01-31
Project Code TMA2019PF-2694
Status Active


Use of an Aedes Salivary Biomarker to Assess Arboviral disease Transmission Risk in Northern Tanzania


To determine human exposure to Aedes mosquitoes as measured by specific anti-IgG antibodies against Aedes Nterm-34kDa salivary peptide, and to assess whether level of antibodies could be useful in assessing the risk of dengue, Zika and chikungunya transmission and evaluate efficacy of vector control strategies in North-Eastern Tanzania.

Host Organisation

Institution Country
Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), Yaoundé, Cameroon


Name Institution Country
Prof. Reginald Kavishe Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (KCMUCo) Tanzania, United Republic of
Prof. Blandina Mmbaga Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute Tanzania, United Republic of
Dr. Emmanuel Elanga N'dille Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), Yaoundé, Cameroon

Study Design

The study will be conducted in three villages in Bondo site, Tanga. Surveys will be conducted three Vector control will be performed few days after the T1 visit. A total of 362 participants will be enrolled.. Participants will be followed longitudinally to screen level of ant- IgG antibody response against Aedes salivary gland peptides


Bondo site, Tanga

Phd Study

Title University Start Date End Date
Dengue and Chikungunya infections: Prevalence and Risk Factors Among Community Members in North Eastern Tanzania Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (KCMUCo) 2014-02-03 2017-11-18

Students Supervised

Type Name Title University Start Date End Date
MSc Anna Kaaya Assessing the Risk of Malaria and Arboviral Transmission by Evaluating Mosquito vector Infectivity and Measuring Serological Biomarkers in Bondo, Tanga Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (KCMUCo) 2021 2022
MSc Emmanuel Mkumbo Association between severe plasmodium malaria and expression of HRP-2 (Histidine Rich Protein 2) among villagers of Bondo site, Handeni district, Tanga region, Tanzania. Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (KCMUCo) 2021 2022
MSc Francis Mponela Prevalence, associated factors and spatial distribution of dengue and chikungunya virus among residents of Handeni District in Tanga Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (KCMUCo) 2021 2022

Results & Outcomes

A total of 1.3 % (5/138) had recent dengue infection. Active chikungunya infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction for 4.2% (11/263) of the participants. Headache and joint pain were significant predictors of chikungunya infection (Measured by IgM sero-positivity) with OR=3.03 (2.06 – 4.40), p<0.01 and OR = 1.80 (1.25 – 2.59), p<0.01, respectively. Risk factors associated with chikungunya IgM sero-positivity were environmental factors such as presence of uncovered containers/car-tire in the surrounding area of the household, keeping hoofed animal and vegetation (<100m). The study found a large cluster of chikungunya seropositive cases in Rundugai village (RR=2.58, p=0.01). The study found that 15.2% (19/125) of the community members and 53.6% (67/125) of the healthcare workers had good knowledge score for dengue.


Kajeguka, D.C., Kaaya, R.D., Mwakalinga, S. et al. Prevalence of dengue and chikungunya virus infections in north-eastern Tanzania: a cross sectional study among participants presenting with malaria-like symptoms. BMC Infect Dis 16, 183 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-1511-5
Homenauth E, Kajeguka D, Kulkarni MA. J Epidemiol Community Health Published Online First: [please include Day Month Year]. doi:10.1136/jech- 2017-209119
Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v19i4.1
Saringe, S., Kajeguka, D.C., Kagirwa, D.D. et al. Healthcare workers knowledge and diagnostic practices: a need for dengue and chikungunya training in Moshi Municipality, Kilimanjaro Tanzania. BMC Res Notes 12, 43 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4074-x

Current Organisation

Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (KCMUCo)

Current Job Title


Students Supervised

Type Name Title University Start Date End Date
Msc Anna Kaaya Assessing the risk of malaria and arboviral transmission through evaluating human exposure to mosquito bite in Handeni, Tanga Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College 2020 2022
MSc Francis Prevalence of Arboviruses and associated risk factors Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (KCMUCo) 2020 2020
MSc Emmanuel Mkumbo Association of severe Malaria and expression of HPR-2 Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (KCMUCo) 2020 2022


Role Committee/board Start Date End Date
Topic Editor Frontiers in Tropical Diseases 2022

Areas Of Specialisation

Neglected Infectious Diseases (NID) Global Excellence in Emerging, Major and Neglected Tropical Diseases


Robert D. Kaaya, Debora C. Kajeguka, Johnson J. Matowo, Arnold J. Ndaro, Franklin W. Mosha, Jaffu O. Chilongola Reginald A. Kavishe , Kaaya, R.D., Kajeguka, D.C., Matowo, J.J. et al. Predictive markers of transmission in areas with different malaria endemicity in north-eastern Tanzania based on seroprevalence of antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum. BMC Res Notes 14, 404 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-021-05818-y
BMC Research Notes


A community-based cross-sectional study was done to assess Plasmodium falciparum exposure in areas with different malaria endemicity in north-eastern Tanzania using serological markers; PfAMA-1 and PfMSP-119.


Bondo had a higher seroprevalence 36.6% (188) for PfAMA-1 as compared to Hai 13.8% (33), χ2 = 34.66, p < 0.01. Likewise, Bondo had a higher seroprevalence 201(36.6%) for PfMSP-1 as compared to Hai 41 (17.2%), χ2 = 29.62, p < 0.01. Anti-PfAMA-1 titters were higher in malaria positive individuals (n = 47) than in malaria negative individuals (n = 741) (p = 0.07). Anti-PfMSP-1 antibody concentrations were significantly higher in malaria-positive individuals (n = 47) than in malaria-negative individuals (n = 741) (p = 0.003). Antibody response against PfAMA-1 was significantly different between the three age groups; < 5 years, 5 to 15 years and > 15 years in both sites of Bondo and Hai. Likewise, antibody response against PfMSP-119 was significantly different between the three age groups in the two sites (p < 0.001). We also found significant differences in the anti-PfAMA-1and anti-PfMSP-119 antibody concentrations among the three age groups in the two sites (p = 0.004 and 0.005) respectively. Immunological indicators of P. falciparum exposure have proven to be useful in explaining long-term changes in the transmission dynamics, especially in low transmission settings.


Not Informed: not informed
Nancy A. Kassam Daniel Laswai Neema Kulaya Robert D. Kaaya Debora C. Kajeguka Christentze Schmiegelow Christian W. Wang Michael Alifrangis Reginald A. Kavishe , Kassam NA, Laswai D, Kulaya N, Kaaya RD, Kajeguka DC, Schmiegelow C, et al. (2022) Human IgG responses to Aedes mosquito salivary peptide Nterm-34kDa and its comparison to Anopheles salivary antigen (gSG6-P1) IgG responses measured among individuals living in Lower Moshi, Tanzania. PLoS ONE 17(10): e0276437. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.027643

Background The level of human exposure to arbovirus vectors, the Aedes mosquitoes, is mainly assessed by entomological methods which are labour intensive, difficult to sustain at a large scale and are affected if transmission and exposure levels are low. Alternatively, serological biomarkers which detect levels of human exposure to mosquito bites may complement the existing epidemiologic tools as they seem cost-effective, simple, rapid, and sensitive. This study explored human IgG responses to an Aedes mosquito salivary gland peptide Nterm34kDa in Lower Moshi, a highland area with evidence of circulating arboviruses and compared the Aedes IgG responses to Anopheles mosquitoes’ salivary antigen (GSG6-P1) IgG responses. Methods Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2019: during the first dry season in March, at the end of the rainy season in June and during the second dry season in September in five villages located in Lower Moshi. Blood samples were collected from enrolled participants above six months of age (age span: 7 months to 94 years) and analysed for the presence of anti-Nterm-34kDa IgG antibodies. Possible associations between Nterm-34kDa seroprevalence and participants’ characteristics were determined. Levels of IgG responses and seroprevalence were correlated and compared to the already measured IgG responses and seroprevalence of Anopheles mosquitoes’ salivary antigen, GSG6-P1. Results During the first dry season, Nterm-34kDa seroprevalence was 34.1% and significantly increased at the end of the rainy season to 45.3% (Chi square (χ2 ) = 6.42 p = 0.011). During the second dry season, the seroprevalence significantly declined to 26.5% (χ2 = 15.12 p<0.001). During the rainy season, seroprevalence was significantly higher among residents of Oria village (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.0–7.8; p = 0.041) compared to Newland. Moreover, during the rainy season, the risk of exposure was significantly lower among individuals aged between 16 and 30 years (AOR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.1 = 0.9; p = 0.036) compared to individuals aged between 0 and 5 years. There was weak to moderate negative correlation between N-term 34kDa IgG and gSG6-P1 antigens. N-term 34kDa seroprevalence were higher compared to gSG6-P1 seroprevalence. Conclusion The findings of this study support that IgG antibody responses towards the Aedes mosquito salivary peptide Nterm-34kDa are detectable among individuals living in lower Moshi and vary with season and geographical area. More individuals are exposed to Aedes mosquito bites than Anopheles mosquito and those exposed to Aedes bites are not necessarily exposed to Anopheles mosquitoes

Not Informed: not informed
Fat-hiya Abdi Hussein Akili Mawazo Jacqueline J. Mwakibinga Rosemary Malya Rukia Rajab Bakar Adonira T. Saro Debora Charles Kajeguka
East African Science


Antibiotic self-medication has been on the rise in different parts of the world.

Antibiotic self-medication causes excessive antibiotic exposure to humans which is associated with many health risks including antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to assess practice and determine the prevalence of antibiotic self-medication among undergraduate students.


This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the practice and knowledge of antibiotic self-medication among undergraduate students. A total of 300 undergraduate students were purposively sampled. The association between categorical predictors and antibiotic self-medication was presented as Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CIs) using logistic regression.


The prevalence of antibiotic self-medication among undergraduate students is 191(63.7%) with amoxicillin 103(53.9%) being the most used antibiotic for treatment of respiratory disorders 109(57.1%) and gastrointestinal disorders 50(26.2%). Pharmacy is the major source of antibiotics used for self-medication 165(86.4%). Delayed/queue in seeking hospitals services was the main reason for practicing antibiotic self-medication 74(38.7%).


The study observed a high prevalence of antibiotic self-medication among undergraduate students. This calls for immediate implementation of public health programs aimed at increasing awareness of consequences that may results from antibiotic self-medication. At the policy-making level, there is an urgent need to legislate and enforce laws restricting access to antibiotics in Tanzania.


Part of Not Informed: 10.24248/easci.v4i1.52
6th East Africa Health and Scientific Conference
Robert Diotrephes Kaaya Johnson Matowo Debora Kajeguka Filemoni Tenu Boniface Shirima Franklin Mosha Reginald Kavishe , Kaaya, R.D.; Matowo, J.; Kajeguka, D.; Tenu, F.; Shirima, B.; Mosha, F.; Kavishe, R. The Impact of Submicroscopic Parasitemia on Malaria Rapid Diagnosis in Northeastern Tanzania, an Area with Diverse Transmission Patterns. Infect. Dis. Rep. 2022, 14, 798–809. https:// doi.org/10.3390/idr14060082
Infectious Disease Report

Global malaria epidemiology has changed in the last decade with a substantial increase in cases and deaths being recorded. Tanzania accounts for about 4% of all cases and deaths reported in recent years. Several factors contribute to the resurgence of malaria, parasite resistance to antimalarials and mosquito resistance to insecticides being at the top of the list. The presence of sub-microscopic infections poses a significant challenge to malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDT). Our cross-sectional surveys in Handeni and Moshi, Tanzania assessed the effect of low parasite density on mRDT. Handeni had higher malaria prevalence by mRDT (39.6%), light microscopy (LM) (16.9%) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (18.5%), compared to Moshi with prevalence of 0.2%, 1.3% and 2.3%, respectively. A significant difference (p < 0.001) in malaria prevalence by mRDT, LM and nested PCR was found among age groups. In comparison to all other groups, school-age children (5–15 years) had the highest prevalence of malaria. Our results show that mRDT may miss up to 6% of cases of malaria mainly due to low-density parasitemia when compared to LM and PCR. Routinely used mRDT will likely miss the sub-microscopic parasitemia which will ultimately contribute to the spread of malaria and hinder efforts of elimination

Not Informed: not informed

Send a Message