Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
OBJECTIVES:Sub-Saharan Africa is a region with high incidence of both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cervical cancer. We conducted the first national study in Togo to assess prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSW). METHODS:A multicentric cross-sectional study was conducted among FSW recruited in hot spots (clubs, streets) in four Togolese cities. HPV and STIs were tested from cervical and anal swabs. HIV and syphilis were screened with rapid tests. RESULTS:In all, 310 FSW were recruited; HIV and cervical high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence were 10.6% (33/310) and 32.9% (102/310), respectively. The most frequent hrHPV types were HPV58 (13.6%, 19/140), HPV35 (12.9%, 18/140), HPV31 (12.1%, 17/140) and HPV16 (10.7%, 15/140). Prevalence of hrHPV and multiple hrHPV infections showed higher rates in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative FSW (48.5% versus 31.0%, p 0.04 and 21.2% versus 9.0%, p 0.03; respectively). Prevalence of hrHPV was higher in cervical than anal swabs (34.1% versus 20.7%, p 0.0004). High-risk HPV anal infections were more frequent among HIV-positive than HIV-negative FSW (51.9% versus 17.3%, p 2 × 10-5). Concomitant anal and cervical hrHPV infections were present in 43.2% (41/95) of hrHPV-positive FSW. Overall prevalence in the cervix of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis were 4.2%, 6.1%, 5.5% and 6.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:This first African study on paired cervical and anal samples showed a high prevalence of genital HPV infections with a rather high rate of concomitant HPV infections but low type concordance. We report an unusual distribution of hrHPV types. These findings highlight the critical need for implementation of a national HPV vaccination strategy.